The Romans knew Jerez de la Frontera as Asta Regia. The area near Jerez de la Frontera has witnessed fierce fights during the Moorish occupation. In 711 Visigoth King Roderick fought the Moors in the famous battle of the Guadalete river.
With the fall of the Roman Empire, all of Hispania was invaded by barbarian peoples of Germanic origin, leaving Hispania under Visigothic rule from the year 507. For a brief period of time, areas of the south of the Iberian Peninsula were taken over the Byzantine Empire, as part of the province of Spania. The Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo with the military campaigns of Leovigildo and Suintila, recovered the Mediterranean coast, thus unifying the entire peninsula under the same kingdom.
During the civil war between Rodrigo and Agila II the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula would begin. General Tarik, with the help of the Visigoth supporters of Agila II, fought against Rodrigo in the vicinity of the Guadalete River, near Jerez, between July 19 and 26, 711, known as the battle of the Guadalete. The defeat of the Visigoth king marked the beginning of the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
During the Arab occupation (711-1264), the city of Jerez de la Frontera was known as Sherish, was considered a city of great strategic importance within the core of Sidueña. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Jerez experienced a period of great development, building its defensive system and configuring the urban layout of the current old town.
In 1231 the battle known as the Battle of Jerez took place, where King Ferdinand III of Castile sent his son the Infante Alfonso X of Castile along with Álvaro Pérez de Castro and Gil Manrique. They traveled from Salamanca in the north, passing through Toledo, and headed towards Córdoba. Once they had taken back the city they headed towards Jerez. The battle, which took place in the vicinity of the Guadalete river, resulted in a Castilian-Leonese victory. The Muslim troops fled to the city of Jerez.
With the conquest of Seville in 1248 by Ferdinand III, the Sherish area came under a Castilian protectorate, between the conquered area and the Granada border. In 1264, after the revolt of the Mudejars, a military campaign by Alfonso X el Sabio definitively incorporated the city and its kingdom to the Crown of Castile, specifically to the Kingdom of Seville.
At that time the current coat of arms of the city was established and the High Court of Appeal of Castile was found in the current Chancillería street until the conquest of Granada.
Diego Fernández de Herrera, an illustrious Jerez nobleman, defended Jerez de la Frontera from one last Arab invasions attempt. He fought in 1339 under the reign of Alfonso XI against the continuous assaults of Abú-Malik.
With the Christian presence, the Arabic place-name became Spanish, becoming Xeres or Xerez. Over time de la Frontera was added, because the city bordered on the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
In the 15th century, Jerez once again experienced strong cultural, social, and economic development, boosting its agriculture, commerce, and wine industry.
Due to its strategic location close to the ports of Cadiz and Seville, Jerez de la Frontera became one of the richest cities in Spain. The wine-making industry contributed to this and the population from all over Europe arrived in Jerez de la Frontera (English, Flemish, Portuguese and Genoese). Wine production and its commerce played a key role in the development of Jerez de la Frontera during the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries.